Secure Institutional treatment of juveniles who have committed serious offenses is known as __ intervention.

Steinberg’s dual systems model of risk-taking is based on evidence from the field of…

A program designed to prevent delinquent behavior before any signs of the behavioral pattern emerge is called
universal prevention

Which of the following statements is not correct?
The number of prevention, intervention, and treatment programs that have been tried with delinquents and children at risk over the past three decades is overwhelming.
Serious forms of antisocial behavior in school-aged children and adolescents have been particularly resistant to change.
To date, virtually no prevention programs have been highly successful in eliminating antisocial behavior and reducing delinquent behavior.
One-on-one psychotherapy that treats the juvenile without involving the social environment is generally ineffective.
To date, virtually no prevention programs have been highly successful in eliminating antisocial behavior and reducing delinquent behavior.

To date, virtually no prevention programs have been highly successful in eliminating antisocial behavior and reducing delinquent behavior.
conduct disorder and antisocial behavior.

According to Loeber et al. (2003), child delinquents __ compared to adolescents who begin offending in the their teens.
are two to three times more likely to become serious violent and chronic offenders.

Which statement is most accurate about juvenile crime?
Juvenile crime has generally decreased since the mid 1990s.
The juvenile crime rate has been steadily increasing since 1990.
Compared to adults, juveniles are responsible for disproportionately higher number of violent crimes.
Juveniles are more likely to be perpetrators rather than victims of violent crime.
Juvenile crime has generally decreased since the mid 1990s.

Poor interpersonal skills, conduct disorders, and difficult temperaments are often found in the background of __ offenders.

How many states tried as adults in criminal courts under certain conditions and for certain offenses?

The stage of development described in Moffitt’s 2002 follow-up study in which young people flounder, choosing not to occupy traditional adult roles such as marriage or parenthood is called
emerging adulthood.

Most of the crime of the young is committed by
AL offenders

The psychodynamic approach to the treatment of aggressive behavior would most likely emphasize.
Reduction of aggressive energy through supervised aggressive behavior.

An approach in psychology that views human cognition and behavior in a broadly Darwinian context of adaptation to evolving physical and social environments is called
Evolutionary Psychology

Freud believed the causes of aggression to be…

_ refers to self-focused attention toward one’s thoughts and feelings. In other words, the person keeps thinking about an incident long after it is over.

After getting into a physical altercation with a co-worker at his job site, George tailgates two cars on the drive home and throws a cell phone at his wife when he arrives home to find that dinner is not ready. The above scenario is an example of…
Excitation transfer theory

Which of the following behaviors represents an example of passive-aggressive behavior?
Slapping someone
Refusing to speak to someone
Shouting at someone
Shooting at someone
Refusing to speak to someone

All of the following offenses are considered violent except….

Most forms of white collar crime would fall into which of the following categories of aggressive behavior?

The tendency to attack space violators is referred to as…

The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others even when it is totally lacking is called…
hostile attribution bias.

Malicious gossip is an example of what type of human aggression?
Indirect active verbal

The tendency of a variety of people across the country to model or copy particular criminal activity portrayed by the entertainment media is called…
Contagion effect.

Waaktaar et al. (2004) conducted a study to explore how resilience or protective factors could be used to help at risk youths. The researchers targeted four resilience factors for therapeutic intervention. What were these four factors?
Positive peer relations, self-efficacy, creativity, and coherence.

T or F – Female delinquency has steadily decreased since 1995.

T or F – Bullying is an example of reactive aggression

T or F – Children with a hostile attribution bias are less likely than average children to see aggressive actions from others where there are none.

T or F – The copycat effect is similar to social learning.

T or F – Research studies have found that viewing violence and playing violent video games have the same detrimental effects on adults.

During early stages of frustration or general arousal, cognitive processes appear to have little influence beyond the immediate appraisal that the situation is aversive. This description outlines a stage of what model of aggression and violence?
The Cognitive neoassociation model

What do Edinboro, Pennsylvania, Fayetteville, Tennessee, and Jonesboro, Arkansas have in common?
They are all locations of school-shooter copycats.

If you were a TV producer and wanted an argument to support your position of the value of violence on television, you would probably rely on which of the following Theoretical Positions?

Do surveys estimate that the average American child sees approximately how many more than violent episodes on television before reaching adolescence?

In hostile aggression, the perpetrator’s primary goal is to
make the victim suffer.

Which of the following statements is true of the GAM?
It is based on “Stand your Ground” laws/
It draws heavily on social-cognitive and social learning theories the reinforcement gained as a result of the behavior.
It posits that violence occurs solely because of basic cognitive processes.
It was developed from research on road rage.
It draws heavily on social-cognitive and social learning theories the reinforcement gained as a result of the behavior.

Instigating triggers, impelling forces, and inhibiting forces are the three categories of…

Which statement most accurately reflects research findings on gender differences in aggression?
Boys are more overtly aggressive than girls during the pre-school years, then aggression rapidly decreases.
Gender differences in aggression are primarily due to biology.
Gender differences are due to cultural and socialization processes that promote different kinds of aggression.
Girls are more aggressive than boys during the pre-school years only.
Gender differences are due to cultural and socialization processes that promote different kinds of aggression.

Criminal psychopaths make up about what percent of the male inmate population in a maximum security prison?

The core behavioral dimension that reflects a socially deviant life style, such as impulsiveness, excess needs for stimulation, and lack of realistic goals is referred to as psychopathic.
Factor 2

Those psychopaths who commit antisocial or violent acts because of severe emotional problems or inner conflicts are referred to as….
secondary psychopaths.

According to Quay, psychopaths behave the way they do because they…
do not receive the full impact of sensations from the environment.

Recent research using factor analysis on the behavioral characteristic suggests that there appear(s) to be _ that adequately describe(s) the behavioral dimensions of psychopaths.
three or more factors

Those researchers who advocate for a fourth core factor in psychopathy argue that __ should be included with the three core factors.
antisocial behavior

The core factors of psychopathy have been identified by a statistical method called…
factor analysis.

Neuropsychological indicators have been repeatedly found in psychopaths, as reflected in electrodermal measures, cardiovascular and other nervous system indices. These indicators are called….

Why is it so difficult to properly evaluate the effectiveness of programs designed to treat psychopaths?
Because they are skilled in manipulation.

Robert Hare’s research focuses on the _ of the psychopath.
neurological feautres

The childhood of the psychopath is often characterized by…

Robert Hare’s research studies have found that criminal psychopaths appear to be deficient in…
linguistic processing.

Primary psychopaths who engage in repetitive antisocial behavior are called _ psychopaths.

T or F – The research community is sharply divided on the long-term effects of violent media on aggressive behavior.

T or F – Secondary psychopaths are more likely to be found in a maximum security prison.

T or F – Current research on gender differences of psychopaths suggests that women far outnumber men.

T or F – The core behavioral dimension that reflects the interpersonal and emotional components, such as callousness and manipulation of others, is referred to as psychopathic factor I.

T or F – Hemisphere asymmetry refers to the observation that most psychopaths have superior language ability.

T or F – Psychopathy Screening Device or the PSD is one of the measures specifically designed to identify youths with psychopathic characteristics.

The behavior of the psychopath appears to be primarily an attempt to…
obtain adequate stimulation.

All of the following are characteristic of the psychopath except…
superficial harm.
extreme self-centeredness.
worry and anxiety about the future.
worry and anxiety about the future.

According to Cleckley, which absolute unchanging characteristic is always present in the psychopath?

Quay has said that psychopaths “know the words but not the music” in reference to their lack of real emotion. This is also known as
Semantic Aphasia

Which of the following statements about juvenile psychopathy is correct?
There are no instruments available for measuring juvenile psychopathy.
Juvenile psychopathy as a construct clearly does not exist.
Some researchers are concerned about the negative implications of labeling juveniles as psychopaths.
Juvenile psychopaths display behavior identical to that of adult psychopaths.
Juvenile psychopathy is correlated with sexual aggression.
Some researchers are concerned about the negative implications of labeling juveniles as psychopaths.

Currently, Hare’s PCL-R is the best measure available of identifying criminal psychopaths. According to Hare, what score must a person receive on this scale to be considered a criminal psychopath?

According to Robert Hare, antisocial individuals who display aggressive behavior learned from their subculture are __ psychopaths.

Rate of ADHD delinquents
1/4 of children w ADHD engage n serious antisocial behavior in adolescence and criminal behavior in adulthood

What disorder commonly occurs w ADHD
conduct disorder

How do people w conduct disorder get their needs met
Through threats and intimidation

Which onset of conduct disorder is worse
Child onset

Common behaviors of someone w conduct disorder
Aggression to people and animals
Destruction of property
Deceitfulness or theft
Serious violations of rules

Psychological risk factors for delinquency (5)
1 cognitive/language deficiencies
2 low IQ
4 conduct disorder
5 lack of empathy

What is mofffit’s developmental theory
Life course persistent offenders show neurological problems early and adolescent limited offenders offending typically occurs in early teen years and ends before 18th birthday

sex offenders parents were :
inconsistent with their affection and poor at identifying their child’s needs

what causes an avoidant attachment
parents who are aloof, distant and avoid intimacy w their child

what causes an anxious/ambivalent attachment
parents are overbearing and inconsistent in affection and intimacy

An emotional response characterized by feelings of concern for another and a desire to alleviate that persons distress and experience their emotion
Affective empathy

The ability to understand a person from his/her frame of reference or point of view rather than from their own point of view and understand their emotion
Cognitive empathy

Deficiencies in empathy have been considered characteristic of (2)
Persistently aggressive and antisocial individuals

What act is associated with lack of empathy
Animal abuse

What is one of the strongest predictors if serious violent criminal behavior
Animal cruelty

Why is language impairments expected to be associated with criminal behavior
Because these children were most likely to be rejected by their peers and have built up frustration from not being able to express themselves and they may attempt to express themselves through violence

What is the psychometric approach
Searches for unique differences in persons through psychological tests

3 traits of ADHD
Excessive motor activity

What is missing from lax, permissive and neglectful parenting styles
Parental monitoring

qualities of an enmeshed parenting style
parents see an unusually large number of minor behaviors as problematic and they use ineffective authoritarian parenting strategies to deal w the child. the parent uses verbal threats but fails to back them up and is constantly showing disapproval

qualities of a lax parenting style
these parents are not sufficiently attuned to what constitutes problematic or antisocial behavior and allows bad behaviors to slip by without discipline. these parents convince themselves that their children are not bad.

what is parental monitoring
refers to the parents awareness of their child’s peer associates, free time activities, and physical whereabouts

when is parental monitoring most important
ages 9 and up

what two parental pathology increases risk of problems in children
parental alcoholism and depression

who developed attachment theory

what is attachment theory
it states that infants have a strong need to establish close emotional bonds with significant others in their social environments and the nature of this bond determines their quality of social relationships later in life

qualities of a secure attachment
play comfortably in mothers presence, demonstrate curiosity about new environments, are in distress when the mother leaves, and happy when she returns

two types of insecure attachments and their qualities
anxious/ambivalent – becomes insanely distressed and anxious by separation and clings to mother in new environment, hostile when mother returns
avoidant – little distress when parent leaves, withdrawn

Those influences in a persons life that are believed to increase the probability that an individual will engage in criminal behavior are called

risk factors

poverty is an example of which kind of risk factor


the diagnostic term which represents a cluster of behaviors in children characterized by repetitive and persistent misbehavior is called

conduct disorder

parents awareness of their child’s peer associated free time activities and physical whereabouts when outside the home

parental monitoring

poor quality preschool daycare places children at risk for (3)

poor language skills, inadequate social skills, and poor cognitive development

research has shown that children who are both ___ and ___ have the highest susceptibility of becoming serious delinquents

physically aggressive and rejected by their peers

one of the strongest predictors of later antisocial behavior

peer rejection

low parental monitoring is associated with (4)

higher levels of antisocial behavior, higher levels of violence, earlier initiation of drug abuse, earlier initiation of alcohol abuse

the ability to control ones own behavior, especially in children is called

self regulation

A persistent pattern of behavior in which basic rights of others are violated and social norms/rules are violated

Conduct disorder

What are some common characteristics of someone w conduct disorder (4)

Aggression to people/animals
Destruction of property
Deceitfulness or theft
Serious violation of rules

2 forms of conduct disorder

Childhood onset (worst prognosis)
Adolescent onset

What is the ecological fallacy

The false assumption that the relationship constructed from group data and can be applied to a single person

What are the three rules of statistical prediction

1. Requires presence of predictive relationship between factors
2. Never infer casual relationship between predictive factors (never cause and effect just correlation)
3. Avoid ecological fallacy

2 social risk factors

1 poverty/social class
2 peer experiences/peer rejection/gangs/school failure

Why is poverty such a high risk factor

It is associated with bad housing, bad neighborhoods, limited opportunities, limited community involvement, delinquent friends, inadequate daycares, it’s associated with discrimination, coercive parenting, joblessness, etc

What is the strongest and best predictor of delinquency

Peer experiences

Relationship between peers and ____ is strong


Aggression and peer rejection is associated with (2)

Serious delinquency and later adult offending

Why is timeout an ineffective form of punishment

It takes them even further away from their peers creating even more peer rejection and social isolation

Who is prone to peer rejection (3)

1 males w impulse and attentional problems
2 males who direct aggression at peers
3 those w poor interpersonal and social skills

what is the gender difference in aggression

Girls use relational aggression while guys use physical aggression

What is temptation talk

Delinquent peers daring them to do delinquent things

What do studies show about after school care and children

Unsupervised kids (home alone after school) are at higher risk for adolescent behavior bc minimal adult supervision allows an environment for anti social peers to associate

Relationship between school failure and delinquency

It is linker to antisocial and delinquent behavior, it is linked to labeling and ridicule by peers

What do studies say about reading skills and delinquency

Reading problems most likely underlie school failure and predicts later arrest in males

Home life associated with delinquency (4)

Divorced/separated parents
Severe physical punishment at home
Child abuse
Emotional abuse

Authoritarian parenting

Parents impose rules and expect obedience to an absolute standard – no communication between parent and child

Permissive parenting

Submit to kids desires, make few demands, use little punishment

Authoritative parenting

Explain reason for rules and consistently enforce them in a spirit of open communication

Neglecting parenting style

Detached and unengaged in child’s life

What 2 parenting styles do Snyder and Patterson associate w delinquency