Please rephrase the following terms from billet points to paragraphs using your own word. Thank you!

a) Confession program 

This is the process that many immigrants have been through, which is related to the paper son appearances. Many emigrants would claim that they are related to someone who is already been naturalized, which cause government to concern. Chinese immigrants are usually asked unreasonable question to prevent their entering.

Iris Chang, The Chinese in America, The Chinese Exclusion Act, 147-150, 251-252), and (Shih-Shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America, Living in the Shadow of Exclusion, 99

b) Benny Ong 

Benny Ong is the 1980s “Permanent advisor” of the new Yorks Hip Sing Tong, also popularly known as Uncle Seven and seen as Chinatown’s version of the Godfather. His priority concerning is to improve Tang’s image, which he manages to solves conflicts and unite people. He also helps Chinese community to negotiating with banks to get money. He comments on CCBA for being to restrictive and undemocratic, which Tang later got to lead the CCBA.

Peter Kwong Introduction Chapters 1-4 pg. 3-80 Chapter 5-6

c) 2.28 Incident

There are two out fourteen million inhabitants of Taiwan were who fled with Chiang Kai-shek in 1949. China lost the Sino-Japan war and left Formosa to Japan which become a colony of Japan. The nationalists want to reclaim the power of the island as a representative of the Allied Powers. Unfortunately, Chiang Kai-shek commanded to excuted about 20,000 Formosan leaders.

American Journal, Vol. 2, Fall 1973, 47-81. China or Taiwan: The Political Crisis of the Chinese Intellectual, Shu Yaun Chang

d) Winnifred Eaton 

– The first Asian American fiction writers were two sisters: Edith Maud Eaton (1865-1914), who published through a Chinese pseudonym Sui Sin Far. Her sister, Winnifred Eaton (1875-1954) published under the Japanese-style name Onoto Watanna.

– They were born from a Chinese mother, and English father, therefore they did not look distinctly Asian. Despite this, both sisters chose to assert an Asian identity when pursuing a writing career.

– The choosing of their respective pseudonyms was a way to imply an ethnic authenticity to support their writing careers.

– Anti-Chinese sentiment was high from the beginning of Chinese immigration

– Japan, on the contrary, saw the importance of modernization, and importation of scientific, military, and technological experts from America.

– Few Japanese immigrated to the United States, so they did not pose an economic threat. The Japanese were complacent in obeying American immigration limitations.

– Winnifred Eaton, unlike her sister Edith, chose to hide her Chinese identity. She was aware that most people could not tell between Chinese, and Japanese people.

– She then assumed her Japanese pseudonym, as well as a false history of her Japanese mother. She also portrayed herself in a Japanese-style kimono, and hair.

-In principle, Edith resisted the stigma against her Chinese heritage, while Winnifred decided to be accommodating to her American readers.

Linda” Li: Amy Ling, “Eaton Sisters.

e) The “Oriental Problem” 

In one way it was theories and questions about Asian Immigrants and citizens of asian ancestry in US that created concepts and vocab for scholarly discussion about Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans between 1920 and 1960.

Institutional construction (Created an intellectual framework for understanding the place of Asians in America) : Act a certain way subconsciously because that’s how white people see them as, and what identity they created

The problem is that they are not like white people

Grouped together Asians like Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese into one group “Oriental” American

K. Scott Wong & Sucheng Chang “Claiming America” Chapter 7 Pg. 191

f) Chinese American Citizens Alliance 

– The forefront of the Americanization movement was the Chinese American Citizens Alliance, or CACA in San Francisco.

– Evolved from the Native Sons of the Golden State, another organization founded in San Francisco to secure equal rights for Chinese Americans.

– It was an educational organization that aided members to become better citizens

– They became well versed in American politics, laws, and economics.

– This led them to realize that their vote mattered, and that it could protect them against further discrimination

– One reason for their success was the large amount of native-born Chinese within the U.S., causing branches of the CACA to open in New York, Chicago, Portland, Pittsburg, Detroit, and many other large cities.

– What started as an educational organization, the CACA was able to establish itself as a leader in the fight for racial equality.

The Chinese Experience in America, Shih Shan Henry Tsai, Living in the Shadow of Exclusion, 97-98

g) The Good Earth (movie)

h) Songs of Gold Mountain

Cantonese folk songs

Written during the Qing dynasty and the California gold rush

these are bad

Expressing about what Chinese men are feeling

Sang about Family separation

Sau-ling C. Wong, “The Politics and Poetics of Folksong Reading: Literary Portrayals of Life Under Exclusion,” pp. 246-267

i) Gum Lum v. Rice, 1927

– Enrollment in Chinese schools was very low.

– In the south, this issue was most prevalent, for there was rampant racial discrimination upheld by the court case of Gung Lum vs. Rice in 1927.

– Gung Lum was a respected Christian merchant in Rosedale, Mississippi with an American-born daughter.

-The Case stated that the Court’s exclusion on account of race of a child of Chinese ancestry from a state high school did not violate the Constitution

– When she tried to enroll at a white high school, she was refused admittance.

-The state argued that they were within their rights to refuse her admittance, because Mississippi laws required a separation of students into white and colored schools.

– The Lum family left Mississippi for a non-segregated school system in Arkansas, and many other Chinese families that were victims of educational discrimination sent their children to China for advanced education.

– Confronted with discrimination, the Chinese community became obsessed with education, and Chinese families stressed the need for their children to be high achievers.

j) “100 Households,” Flushing, Queens, New York

· This article was to examine the struggles of the Queens Chinese immigrants with the working class, small business class, and the professionals.

· It was found that many households in Queens keep in contact with their families in Taiwan and that there were some cases that involved the parents leaving their children, husbands and wives being left in China

o Each person leaving family had different reasons for coming to America

§ Broken Marriages-For a chance at a new life or escaping

§ Opportunities for better education

§ Economic Motives-Had the opportunity to make more money

§ Chain Migration-Family members following one another from a sponsorship from another family member in

§ Politics- A single case mentioned that he thought the KMT in Taiwan was too strict that he couldn’t express himself

· The term astronaut is used to describe the families and husbands because they have to go between two places frequently.

· The different households had 5 different ways of acquiring work

o Kinship Ties

o Friends’ Introductions-Most common form of work in this group study

o Employment Agencies

o Self Help: Direct approach from employers/ Posters

55% of the households have paid jobs

· Most Chinese would buy a house before they buy a business because of calculating the risk then find a job

· Chinese women do most of the house work with the exception of taking out the trash and banking left for the men. Similar to the division in Taiwan.

· The working class does not participate in Association memberships because of lack of time and the professional class usually joins for religious purposes and for political benefits.

· Most of the Chinese immigrants celebrated Chinese New Year and some mostly the professional class adopted the Western holidays like Christmas

· The Chinese families that were Christian in Taiwan do not have time to participate in Church activities in America but most do have an item of Chinese folk religion in their homes.

· Hsiang-Shui Chen, China Town No More Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York Cornell UP 1992 Chapter 3 “One Hundred Households,”

k) Forbidden City, USA

– A documentary film by Arthur Dong about Chinese American nightclub performers in the 30s and 40s.

– Touched on the dilemmas of Chinese American women performers being judged by two sets of standards.

– The Chinese American culture, and a Eurocentric American Culture simultaneously judging the female entertainers for portraying racist, and sexist stereotypes, but also being praised for breaking new ground in entertainment.

– Chinese nightclub society began at the end of the prohibition era of 1933, and brought respectability to nightclub life.

– Showgirls were seen as “whores”, and the general agreement among American families was than it was not respectable for one to partake in this lifestyle, as a performer or as a person who attends such events.

Chinese Historical Society of America. Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 1992. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1992. 125-148. Lorraine Dong

l) Wah Ching

Wah Ching is a Chinese American street gang that operate mostly in Southern California but including areas throughout California and Vancouver, British Columbia. During their salad days, they controlled most of the criminal vices throughout San Francisco and Los Angeles’s Asian communities.

-Begun in 1963, it was a group of Hong Kong immigrants, mostly male

– They came to the US uneducated, and mostly jobless. Few picked up steady jobs, but most worked lamented wages.

– Their deficiency in English prevented them from continuing school and finding work outside of Chinatown.

-Considered to be a violent and a detrimental aspect to Chinatown by many officials and the CCBA, this group brought violence to Chinatown and it was recorded in newspapers.

m) Wong Chin Foo

– He returned to China after receiving an American education, then shortly after he fled the Qing government’s persecution for his unconventional beliefs

– Wong’s image was used as a courageous civil rights activist to help counteract the image of Chinese Americans as “sitting ducks”.

– Created the first Chinese Newspaper called the Chinese American, published on February 3rd, 1883.

o This was significant, because the term Chinese American was not widely used at the time, and naming the newspaper as such was one of the first times that Chinese identified themselves as Americans of Chinese origins, rather than “sojourners”.

o The newspaper was created to improve the image of Chinese Americans

o He was against Chinese Christians

§ Oppression of Chinese by Christians

§ Chinese Christians were often heavily Americanized

the Origins of the Chinese American Movement: Wong Chin Foo and the Chinese Equal Rights League, Qingsong Zhang, Pg 41

n) Henry Liu

Assassinated in his own home in October 1984 for writing an unauthorized biography of Chian Ching-kuo, this was a shocking scene because of the KMT’s exemption from punishment in the United States.

· The Chinese in America 2003 Irish Chang Pg. 323

· The Chinese Experience in America 1986 Shih-Shan Henry Tsai 178, 182

– In 1984, Wang Xiling (head of KMT military intelligence), sent members of his gang to Daly City, California to assassinate Henry Liu in his home.

-Liu had written an unauthorized biography of Chian Ching-kuo (the son of Chiang-Kai-shek) and also the president of the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.

-It was seen as anti-KMT propaganda

-Liu was allegedly a triple agent between the U.S., China, and Taiwan)

– The fact that the KMT was able to operate so easily within the United States was intimidating to the Chinese American community.

The Chinese Experience in America, Shih-Shan Henry Tsai, 1986, pg 178, 182

o) Eugene Moy

– Managing Editor of China Daily News, and was the biggest Chinese American Newspaper sympathetic to the People’s Republic of China

– Justice Department of United States charged him and four others for violating the Foreign Assets Control Regulation

– Only time anyone had been prosecuted under the law since it was passed in 1917.

– He was sentenced to two years in prison, and died shortly after

Chinese In America, “A Mass Inquisition”, 250

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