Respond to two colleagues with additional strategies, or provide a constructive review of your colleagues’ posting. In addition, review your colleague’s article and provide additional insights or perspectives on the article.
(Note: I posted two of my colleague’s responses to the discussion post below, please respond to their posts. You may begin the response with Hi Nicole & Hi Carol) (I need a half page response for each person) Also Please use APA format. Do not forget to list your references and include the in-text citations. Also please use current (meaning within the past 2 years) scholarly journal articles as references. Thanks.
In my school we have a large influx of non-English speaking students. Specifically students whom speak Haitian Creole, Arabic, and various Spanish dialects. For students such as these I feel they need a more immersive environment, In a sense a Rosetta Stone type of instruction, but all day everyday. We do not offer such a program, they students are taught by a certified special education teacher who is fluent in English, French, Haitian Creole, and Spanish; she requires the students speak to her in English at all times and they are making significant progress. Unfortunately, due to her schedule she doesn’t nearly get enough time to work with them and though they have made leaps and bounds towards fluency they are still a long way off. Another issue we have is with the written work/word. Our students are given an iPad to help with translations throughout the day, and there are enough of us who are truly technology savy as are they, but due to the lack of knowledge of the English language as of yet and the lack of a translator on staff for all languages many lessons are taught with little impact. The classroom teachers do what they can, but they are teaching in English and the students are not able to read quite to that level so they miss out on much of what is going on. In my opinion it would be more beneficial to have their core classes in a self-contained setting and let their specials and lunch be in an integrated setting for at least the first half of the year, to give them a chance to learn at a similar rate as their other classmates.
Studies have been completed and have shown that if a Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages were fluent in the language of their students, as long as they maintain their English speaking proficiency and do not let the native language of their student to erode their English then a non-English speaking student would have much more success than if they were taught by a teacher whom did not know their language. Add to this the continued use of picture images and group work, amongst other practices, will create successful learning environments in substitution of a self-contained setting.
Dual language programs are one way to promote a student’s native language while providing quality education in an English-speaking educational system. Students in a dual language program develop literacy and cognitive skills in two languages. In my district, we have 48 dual language programs in Spanish, Mandarin, and Korean. The program supports both the native English speaker as well as the English learner. Bilingual education can many times have a negative connotation and the dual language program changes that, adding a positive spin. Instruction is balanced between the two languages so that English learners are not always the one’s learning in their non-dominant language. Dual language program teachers in my district receive training in the Guided Language Acquisition Design (GLAD) strategies. These teachers are using research-based instructional strategies to implement good first teaching. Some of the strategies emphasized are the use of sentence stems, academic discourse, graphic organizers, comparative input charts, realia and frequent checking for understanding. Administrators and teachers create a positive environment that is both supportive and encouraging. These students gain a heightened cultural understanding, and both groups of students excel academically. In a study done by Marian, Shook and Schroeder of 3rd, 4th and 5th-grade students in a dual language program in Texas, they found that both the majority language and minority language students benefitted from the program (2013). Typically English learner test scores lag far behind native English speakers in performance. The study showed that both groups outperformed their peers in mainstream classes (Marian, 2013). According to a Stanford University study done in 2014, students in classes taught in two languages not only catch up to their English immersion counterparts but eventually surpass them both academically and linguistically (Myers, 2014). The key to student success is time. The positive results are not seen in the first couple of years, and one of the criticisms of dual language programs is the time it takes (Myers, 2014).
One of the challenges with implementing a dual language program is finding suitable materials for instruction in both languages (Fenner, n.d.). This problem is even more exacerbated with the implementation of the new Common Core standards. Teachers many times must pull from a variety of resources to address the content and language objectives.
Another challenge is securing qualified dual language teachers who are also skilled at designing instruction in two languages (Fenner, n.d.). When planning lessons they many times have to be able to adapt the materials for both languages. Teachers must have linguistic fluency in both languages and be able to communicate and collaborate with parents.
Fenner, D. (n.d.). Implementing CCSS in dual language programs: Challenges and resources. Color! colorado! Retrieved fromhttp://www.colorincolorado.org/blog/implementing-ccss-dual-language-programs-challenges-and-resources-part-ii
Marian, V., Shook, A., and Schroeder, S. (2013). Bilingual two-way immersion programs benefit academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal 36, p.167-186. doi: 10:1080/15235882.2013.818075
Myers, A. (2014). Students learning English benefit more in two-language instructional programs than English immersion, Stanford research finds. Stanford Report. Retrieved from http://new.stanford.edu/news/2014/march/teaching-english-language-032514.html