Those influences in a persons life that are believed to increase the probability that an individual will engage in criminal behavior are called

risk factors

poverty is an example of which kind of risk factor


the diagnostic term which represents a cluster of behaviors in children characterized by repetitive and persistent misbehavior is called

conduct disorder

parents awareness of their child’s peer associated free time activities and physical whereabouts when outside the home

parental monitoring

poor quality preschool daycare places children at risk for (3)

poor language skills, inadequate social skills, and poor cognitive development

research has shown that children who are both ___ and ___ have the highest susceptibility of becoming serious delinquents

physically aggressive and rejected by their peers

one of the strongest predictors of later antisocial behavior

peer rejection

low parental monitoring is associated with (4)

higher levels of antisocial behavior, higher levels of violence, earlier initiation of drug abuse, earlier initiation of alcohol abuse

the ability to control ones own behavior, especially in children is called

self regulation

A persistent pattern of behavior in which basic rights of others are violated and social norms/rules are violated

Conduct disorder

What are some common characteristics of someone w conduct disorder (4)

Aggression to people/animals
Destruction of property
Deceitfulness or theft
Serious violation of rules

2 forms of conduct disorder

Childhood onset (worst prognosis)
Adolescent onset

What is the ecological fallacy

The false assumption that the relationship constructed from group data and can be applied to a single person

What are the three rules of statistical prediction

1. Requires presence of predictive relationship between factors
2. Never infer casual relationship between predictive factors (never cause and effect just correlation)
3. Avoid ecological fallacy

2 social risk factors

1 poverty/social class
2 peer experiences/peer rejection/gangs/school failure

Why is poverty such a high risk factor

It is associated with bad housing, bad neighborhoods, limited opportunities, limited community involvement, delinquent friends, inadequate daycares, it’s associated with discrimination, coercive parenting, joblessness, etc

What is the strongest and best predictor of delinquency

Peer experiences

Relationship between peers and ____ is strong


Aggression and peer rejection is associated with (2)

Serious delinquency and later adult offending

Why is timeout an ineffective form of punishment

It takes them even further away from their peers creating even more peer rejection and social isolation

Who is prone to peer rejection (3)

1 males w impulse and attentional problems
2 males who direct aggression at peers
3 those w poor interpersonal and social skills

what is the gender difference in aggression

Girls use relational aggression while guys use physical aggression

What is temptation talk

Delinquent peers daring them to do delinquent things

What do studies show about after school care and children

Unsupervised kids (home alone after school) are at higher risk for adolescent behavior bc minimal adult supervision allows an environment for anti social peers to associate

Relationship between school failure and delinquency

It is linker to antisocial and delinquent behavior, it is linked to labeling and ridicule by peers

What do studies say about reading skills and delinquency

Reading problems most likely underlie school failure and predicts later arrest in males

Home life associated with delinquency (4)

Divorced/separated parents
Severe physical punishment at home
Child abuse
Emotional abuse

Authoritarian parenting

Parents impose rules and expect obedience to an absolute standard – no communication between parent and child

Permissive parenting

Submit to kids desires, make few demands, use little punishment

Authoritative parenting

Explain reason for rules and consistently enforce them in a spirit of open communication

Neglecting parenting style

Detached and unengaged in child’s life

What 2 parenting styles do Snyder and Patterson associate w delinquency