September – December 2023 MULTIPLE QUESTIONS

Business & Finance

1. Which of the following would NOT contribute to organizational effectiveness?a. excellent quality assurance proceduresb. quality employee retention programsc. superior customer relations processesd. high prices for all goods and services2. Considerable risks are involved when managers make decisions MOST LIKELY because thedecisions ________.a. are made under uncertain conditionsb. affect many peoplec. produce significant revenued. are plagued with faulty judgements3. In the managerial function of ________, managers encourage and motivate workers to worktoward organizational goals.a. leadingb. organizingc. planningd. controlling4. Which of the following is the BEST description of diversity?a. different socio-economic backgroundsb. distinct ethical perspectives shared by manyc. unified business objectives shared across multiple organizationsd. highly skilled workers within a specific discipline5. David Berry is the manager of a racially diverse department; however, no minorities are insupervisory positions. Therefore, he plans to actively recruit a minority supervisor. Because he isconcerned that nonminority employees may oppose his decision, he is MOST LIKELY dealingwith a ________.a. cultural challengeb. flexibility challengec. fairness and justice challenged. decision-making and performance challengeChallenge Examination 8 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior6. Rick Ward, human resources manager for May and Simmons Company, is developing a newbenefits package that can be customized to provide care for unmarried life partners andworkers caring for aged parents. Such a program would meet the ________ challenge ofmanaging a diverse workforce.a. sensitivityb. flexibilityc. fairnessd. performance7. A specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel,think, and act in a certain way is ________.a. a moodb. an abilityc. a traitd. a behavior8. Which of the following statements about the Big Five model of personality is TRUE?a. A person will always have one trait in which they rank highest.b. A person who ranks high on extraversion is likely to have many social interaction withothers.c. A person who ranks high on agreeableness will rank low on conscientiousness.d. A person who ranks high in extraversion can rank high or low on any other trait.9. Dana is an attorney. She is a gifted legal thinker and writer. When her partners bring her a legalproblem that they will need to address in court she is almost always able to help them.However, she refuses to go into court herself. She explains that she simply does not feelcomfortable speaking publicly. In which trait does Dana MOST LIKELY rank low?a. extraversionb. agreeablenessc. conscientiousnessd. openness to experience10. High self-monitors would perform especially well in all of the following jobs EXCEPT ________.a. salesb. consultingc. spokesperson for a companyd. devil’s advocate on a team Challenge Examination 9 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior11. ________ is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities.a. Self-monitoringb. Self-esteemc. Agreeablenessd. Conscientiousness12. Individuals with Type B personalities are MOST LIKELY to be ________.a. impatientb. drivenc. competitived. relaxed13. ________ pertain to fairness, equity, and impartiality in decision-making.a. Utilitarian valuesb. Moral rights valuesc. Justice valuesd. Equal rights values14. Laura is a manager at a retail store. She recently found out that the company is facingbudget cuts. She was given the option to give all of her employees a 3% pay cut or lay offone employee. If she were using utilitarian values as her guide, which decision wouldshe MOST LIKELY make?a. give all her employees a 3% pay-cutb. organize a protestc. quit the job so she does not have to make a decisiond. lay off one employee15. Passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ________.a. overrides the need for an organization to have a code of ethicsb. diminishes protections for whistleblowersc. increases the reporting obligations of public companiesd. instates regular auditing of public companies16. How a worker feels about his or her job or organization represents the ________ of the worker’sattitude.a. behavioral componentb. affective componentc. cognitive componentd. temperamental componentChallenge Examination 10 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior17. What statement BEST describes how situational factors may affect work mood?a. Only major events and conditions in one’s life affects work mood.b. Major and minor events and conditions affect one’s work mood.c. Situational factors do not affect work mood.d. Workplace incivility is the most important factor of work mood.18. A manager notices a high amount of workplace incivility in the office. What strategy shouldthe manager employ to BEST combat this?a. push up work deadlinesb. reprimand rude employeesc. encourage face-to-face conversationsd. beautify the office19. Individuals who are salient are often perceived in ________ inconspicuous members of agroup.a. more neutral terms thanb. more extreme terms thanc. less extreme terms thand. the same terms as20. A ________ is a systematic tendency to use, ignore, or interpret information about a target in aparticular way that results in inaccurate perceptions.a. stereotypeb. biasc. paradigmd. schema21. Travis Randall often boasts of his ability to “size up” candidates interviewing for a newjob in the first 30 seconds of the interview. He notes that the rest of the interview is spentcollecting information to prove to his boss why his initial assessment is correct. This is anexample of ________.a. stereotypeb. biasc. primacy effectd. schemaChallenge Examination 11 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior22. Which of the following is NOT a bias that can have an effect on the attributions peoplemake to their own behaviors or the behaviors of others?a. fundamental attribution errorb. systematic observational biasc. actor-observer effectd. self-serving attributions23. The ________ occurs when a manager thinks a subordinate’s behavior is due to some innatecharacteristic rather than to the situation.a. fundamental attribution errorb. attention deficit syndromec. actor-observer effectd. residual attribution error24. Fundamental attribution errors MOST LIKELY occur when one ________.a. takes credit for successes and avoids blame for failuresb. focuses on the actor and ignores the contextc. is unaware of all of the individual factors that influence behaviord. attributes the behavior of others to external causes25. When Jennifer Olsen started working at the law firm of Gould, Starnt, and Heffernen, sheknew she was one of only a few women at the company who was balancing work and singlemotherhood. Determined to make her job a success, she worked long hours and sacrificedmuch time with her child for the good of the firm. Despite her efforts, her productivity, andher high rate of cases won, she knew there were other lawyers at her company who wouldalways see her as a single mother first and a lawyer second. Which of the following is NOTTRUE about the perceptions of Jennifer’s co-workers?a. Jennifer’s coworkers are basing their perceptions on stereotypes of single mothers.b. Jennifer’s coworkers are calling upon dysfunctional schemas as they perceive her.c. Jennifer’s coworkers’ perceptions of her are influenced by their knowledge of the factthat she is a single mother.d. Jennifer’s coworkers are using impression management in order to make themselveslook better to the firm owners.Challenge Examination 12 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior26. Despite the fact that she walked into the interview chewing gum, which Dan found veryunprofessional, he hired Margaret, in part, because, like him, she was born and raised in Ohio.On her first two or three job performance evaluations, Dan gave her high ratings, even thoughshe was often late and missed many deadlines, because she made a good overall impression,especially compared to her very inadequate co-workers.Which of the following biases has Dan NOT allowed to cloud his judgement when it comes toMargaret?a. primacy effectb. contrast effectc. halo effectd. similar-to-me effect27. The intended result of ________ is that once an undesired behavior ceases to be reinforced,its frequency will diminish until it no longer occurs.a. extinctionb. behavior modificationc. operational interventiond. shaping28. According to operant conditioning theory, punishment ________ the probability of anundesired behavior.a. increasesb. reducesc. negatesd. eliminates29. Negative reinforcement ________ the probability of a desired behavior.a. increasesb. decreasesc. eliminatesd. has no effect on30. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY to contribute to an employee’s level of creativity?a. internal locus of controlb. intelligencec. self-esteemd. structureChallenge Examination 13 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior31. ________ is all of the information, skills, and expertise that an individual or a group has aboutthe kind of work being performed.a. Autonomyb. Situational synergyc. Task-relevant knowledged. Operational awareness32. According to Peter Senge, which of the following is NOT a key activity central to a learningorganization?a. encouraging low self-efficacyb. encouraging learning in groups and teamsc. developing complex schemasd. communicating a shared vision for the organization33. According to expectancy theory, valence, instrumentality, and expectancy must be ________ inorder for an employee to be motivated to perform desired behaviors and to perform them ata high level.a. zerob. onec. highd. low34. A factory worker really wants to move up in the corporation. He does his work, stays late, andis always looking for extra ways to help. He gets passed up for promotion after promotion.This will MOST LIKELY affect his ________.a. instrumentalityb. valencec. expectancyd. equity35. According to Stacy Adams, a ________ is simply another employee or group of employeesperceived to be similar to oneself.a. substituteb. peer groupc. referentd. doppelgangerChallenge Examination 14 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior36. Barbara Subaru is a secretary with a prestigious law firm who has observed that othersecretaries with the firm receive better pay and have better working conditions than shedoes, even though she is more productive than they are. Equity theory would label thiscondition as ________.a. overpayment inequityb. referent inequityc. underpayment inequityd. imbalance inequity37. According to equity theory, which of the following actions would an employee NOT take torestore equity?a. change the inputs for his own workb. change the inputs or outcomes of the referentc. change his perceptions of inputs and outcomesd. change the outputs of his own work38. Gerald Simmons, a manager for Computers-R-Us, has been studying the equity theory ofmotivation. In an effort to be equitable, he plans to give the same percentage pay raise toeach of his employees who work 40 hours a week. His plan ________.a. will eliminate previous inequities at the storeb. demonstrates an understanding of the unique inputs of each employeec. considers that effort and behavior are likely to vary across workersd. may be a problem for those who feel underpaid39. After employees are allowed to interact with customers or clients, and made responsiblefor managing these relationships and satisfying customers, which of the following core jobdimensions would NOT increase?a. task identityb. skill varietyc. autonomyd. feedback40. The three individual differences identified by the job characteristics model that affect therelationships between the core dimensions and the psychological states and the relationshipsbetween the psychological states and the outcomes include ________.a. skill variety, task identify, and task significanceb. growth-need strength, level of knowledge and skills, and satisfaction with the workcontextc. core dimensions, critical psychological states, and growth-need strengthsd. experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes, andknowledge of resultsChallenge Examination 15 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior41. According to the social information processing model, the social environment includes all ofthe following EXCEPT ________.a. other work group membersb. supervisorsc. books and documentariesd. employee’s own past behaviors42. According to the social information processing model, workers’ past behaviors will MOSTLIKELY affect ________.a. how they view their current jobs and work outcomesb. how they currently view past experiencesc. their extrinsic motivationd. their future earnings potential43. Tom Siegmund joined Chrismer and Park Co. as a security guard 30 years ago and after manyyears of hard work is now the company’s security manager. Tom has received several job offersfrom other companies over the years, but has always chosen to stay with Chrismer and Park.Jesse Black is also a 30-year veteran who works as a clerk at Chrismer and Park. Tom andJesse see each other only at the annual veteran’s awards ceremony. This year, Jesse told Tomhow unhappy he was in his work, but that he couldn’t do anything about it because he hadnever received a job offer from another company. According to social information processingtheory, if all other things are equal, Tom’s job satisfaction is MOST LIKELY ________.a. the same as Jesse’s, as they both joined the company at the same timeb. higher than Jesse’s, as Tom is a manager and Jesse is a clerkc. higher than Jesse’s, based on Tom’s past choices and personal sacrificesd. less than Jesse’s, because Tom has more responsibility44. ________ advocates job simplification and job specialization, and its key goal is maximizingperformance.a. Job enrichmentb. Job enhancementc. Scientific managementd. The job characteristics model45. A doctor is asked to improve her relationship with her patients. She usually has little time tospend with them due to other obligations of her job. She is also expected to take on morepatients because another doctor is taking an extended leave. She will most MOST LIKELYfeel ________.a. role conflictb. underloadc. overloadd. role ambiguityChallenge Examination 16 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior46. ________ is the uncertainty that occurs when employees are not sure about what is expectedof them and how they should perform their jobs.a. Role ambiguityb. Role conflictc. Role distressd. Role uncertainty47. Sara Chan is unsure about what is expected of her and how she should perform her job.Therefore, she is experiencing ________.a. role ambiguityb. role conflictc. work-life balance stressd. underload48. ________ relates to the steps people take to deal with and control their stressful feelings.a. Retroactive copingb. Problem-focused copingc. Solution-focused copingd. Emotion-focused coping49. When ________ is successful, stressful feelings generated by threats and opportunities do notget out of hand.a. emotion-focused copingb. problem-focused copingc. solution-focused copingd. psycho-social coping50. One technique for dealing with stress is to manage time better. This requires ________.a. coming in earlier and leaving laterb. making and prioritizing lists of tasksc. setting time limits for interactions with your bossd. not attending meetings51. Members of an organization form ________ when they have a common goal or objective thatthey are trying to achieve by uniting their efforts.a. interest groupsb. friendship groupsc. cross-functional teamsd. self-managed work teamsChallenge Examination 17 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior52. The stages of group development include all of the following EXCEPT the ________ stage.a. normingb. adjourningc. formingd. conforming53. The ________ stage of group development is characterized by considerable conflict.a. normingb. adjourningc. formingd. storming54. Role ________ may be formally specified in a written job description or emerge informally overtime as members work out methods for getting the job done.a. takingb. normingc. relationshipsd. negotiations55. The performance of responsibilities that are associated with an assigned role is referred to asrole ________.a. takingb. relatingc. normingd. occupation56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that rules can offer for controlling and managingthe behavior and performance of group members?a. They help ensure the performance of behaviors beneficial to organizationaleffectiveness.b. They allow comparison of actual behaviors to behaviors specified by the rules.c. They eliminate the impact of group norms.d. They help newcomers learn the right way to perform their roles.Challenge Examination 18 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior57. A research team believed that an organization’s members would perform better when in agroup. They studied how much effort was exerted in a tug of war contest when individualswere by themselves and when the individuals were on a team with others. They were MOSTLIKELY to find that ________.a. individuals exerted the same amount of effort regardless of the situationb. individuals exerted less effort when they knew they were being watchedc. individuals exerted more effort when in a groupd. individual exerted less effort when in a group58. Every day his group meets, Mike shows up late, texts on his phone, and doesn’t exert mucheffort. Kate is getting angry with Mike’s behavior. An example of the sucker effect would be ifKate ________.a. works harder to compensate for Mikeb. resigns from the groupc. reports Mike to the supervisord. starts showing up late59. James Thompson’s “model of group tasks” suggests that as task interdependence within agroup ________ the degree and intensity of the interactions between group members who arerequired to perform the group’s task ________.a. increases; decreaseb. increases; increasec. decreases; increased. decreases; remains unchanged60. ________ groups tend to promote cohesiveness.a. Largeb. Dysfunctionalc. Smalld. Diverse61. Groups tend to be MOST cohesive when members are ________.a. coherentb. homogeneousc. heterogeneousd. amalgamatedChallenge Examination 19 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior62. Competition between groups is LEAST LIKELY to promote organizational effectiveness when________.a. one group competes against another to see which group can maintain the highest-quality standardsb. one group becomes more concerned with beating another group than with achievingthe organization’s goalsc. groups that are doing especially well receive public recognitiond. groups are given or adopt their own names63. Sources of functional or divisional organizational power do NOT include ________.a. visibilityb. centralityc. ability to control contingenciesd. ability to control and generate resources64. ________ is how vital or crucial the activities of a function or division are to the operation ofthe entire organization and the degree to which it is positioned to gain access to importantinformation from other functions.a. Centralityb. Contingencyc. Relevanced. Irreplaceability65. Jim Bosley is a corporate manager for a large corporation. He has the authority to approveprojects of the organization’s subsidiaries. He knows that his PRIMARY source of power is his________.a. irreplaceabilityb. control over contingenciesc. control over resourcesd. referent power66. According to Pondy’s model, as the parties in the ________ conflict stage assert their views,the significance of the disputed issue is likely to be blown out of proportion.a. feltb. latentc. manifestd. perceived Challenge Examination 20 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior67. According to Pondy’s model, during the ________ conflict stage, one party decides how toreact to or deal with the party that it sees as the source of the conflict and both parties try tohurt each other and thwart each other’s goals.a. latentb. feltc. perceivedd. manifest68. Every conflict episode leaves a conflict ________ that affects the way both parties perceiveand respond to future episodes.a. outcomeb. residuec. resolutiond. aftermath69. Grace is shopping for a computer when a salesman begins telling her why she should choose acertain model. He is using technical terms that Grace doesn’t understand, so Grace losesinterest and leaves. In the future, the salesman should ________.a. change how he encodes the messageb. change how he decodes the messagec. use more jargond. use non-verbal communication70. The ________ provides paths of communication for delicate information, as well as forpotential and actual crises.a. grapevineb. advice networkc. trust networkd. communication network71. Encoding is MOST necessary to communication because it ________.a. eliminates information distortionb. entails modifying a message based on who is receiving itc. provides specialized terminologyd. gives credibility to the message72. Which of the following is enhanced by nonverbal communication?a. a text messageb. an in-person meetingc. a telephone messaged. a company’s annual reportChallenge Examination 21 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior73. Personally addressed written communication BEST helps to ________.a. provide nonverbal cuesb. promote instantaneous feedbackc. speed up communicationd. encourage the receiver to pay attention to it74. ________ allows a sender to communicate with the largest number of receiverssimultaneously.a. Voicemailb. Instant messagingc. Personally addressed written communicationd. Impersonal written communication75. Organizational members often engage in ________; that is, they search for and chooseacceptable responses to opportunities and problems.a. optimizingb. rationalizingc. satisficingd. sacrificing76. The only doctor in a small town had a problem. He wanted to see all of the people whoneeded his care but he did not have enough time in the day to do so. He was especiallyworried that if he did not see certain patients, they would not be able to afford the doctor inthe next town over. His problem is a(n) ________ one.a. optimalb. rationalc. ethicald. financial77. Heuristics are best described as ________.a. helpful and effective in all situationsb. helpful in some situations and dangerous in othersc. harmful and nonproductive in all situationsd. harmful when used in nonprogrammed decision makingChallenge Examination 22 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior78. The fact that decisions made by groups are more extreme than decisions made by individualsis LEAST LIKELY associated with ________.a. the diffusion of responsibility occursb. knowing that other group members support the same decision can cause groupmembers to become more confident in their positionc. as a group discusses alternatives, members of the group come up with persuasivearguments to support their favored alternative and the group’s confidence in the chosenalternative increasesd. the diversity found in groups that cannot exist within single individuals79. ________ can become dysfunctional when individual members become more concerned aboutwinning the battle than in making a good decision.a. Individual decision-makingb. Programmed decision-makingc. Nonprogrammed decision-makingd. Group decision-making80. ________ is a spontaneous, participative, decision-making technique that groups use togenerate a wide range of alternatives from which to make a decision.a. Producingb. Brainstormingc. Nominal group techniqued. Delphi technique81. A company uses mass production to manufacture toilet paper. The organization MOSTLIKELY ________.a. has an organic structureb. has a mechanistic structurec. uses nonroutine technologyd. carries high task analyzability82. An example of ________ technology is the services rendered by a small group of auditors hiredto evaluate the accuracy of a firm’s financial statements.a. mediatedb. functionalc. small-batchd. assembly-line Challenge Examination 23 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior83. ________ technology is based primarily on the use of automated machines that areprogrammed to perform the same operations time and time again.a. Processb. Functionalc. Informationd. Mass-production84. The principle of the ________ chain of command states that an organization should operatewith the fewest levels possible.a. minimumb. retractablec. streamlinedd. hierarchical85. Top management members do not want a tall organization, so they should ________.a. follow the principle of maximum chain of commandb. stress the importance of low risk behaviors to employeesc. hire more managers to supervise lower level managersd. offer training to employees to enable them to make more decisions86. ________ is the ongoing communication among different people and functions that isnecessary for an organization to achieve its goals.a. Instant messagingb. Mutual adjustmentc. Divisional alignmentd. Functional integration87. A company manufactures parts for military aircrafts. The process requires accuracy andprecision, and each job must be done in a certain way to ensure high quality. Aninstrumental value of this company would MOST LIKELY be ________.a. creativityb. excellencec. attention to detaild. risk taking88. If an organization has a terminal value of ________, it will MOST LIKELY have an instrumentalvalue of ________.a. excellence; profitabilityb. responsibility; creativityc. conservation; innovationd. morality; being honestChallenge Examination 24 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior89. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a terminal value of innovativeness?a. maintaining high standardsb. working hardc. being creatived. playing it safe90. An organization develops ________ to encourage members to adopt certain terminal andinstrumental values and to behave in certain ways as they pursue their goals.a. specific normsb. regulatory frameworksc. generalized expectationsd. organizational guidelines91. Henry Ford said, “Learning together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Workingtogether is success.” Based on this, his organization MOST LIKELY had an instrumental valueof ________.a. profitabilityb. innovationc. moralityd. cooperation92. Which of the following would an innovative company be MOST LIKELY to do that an inertcompany would not do?a. promote from within the companyb. cut costs as low as possiblec. abide by the most rigid ethical standardsd. experiment with additional product lines93. All of the following are common instrumental values in a company with an inert cultureEXCEPT ________.a. lazinessb. noncooperationc. output restrictiond. entrepreneurshipChallenge Examination 25 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior94. According to Hofstede, ________ is the dimension of culture that focuses on the valuesthat govern the relationship between individuals and groups.a. national ethosb. power distancec. individualism versus collectivismd. achievement versus nurturing orientation95. In a country with low power distance, the government would MOST LIKELY view programs toequalize wealth amongst all citizens in a(n) _______ manner.a. indifferentb. unethicalc. positived. negative96. An organization decided it wanted its members always to be looking for ways to make theorganization better through efficiency or product improvement. Employees attended ameeting where the TQM strategy was explained. When the strategy was evaluated within amonth, it was determined to be ineffective. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a reasonfor the poor evaluation?a. It was too drastic of a change.b. The managers did not empower the employees.c. The strategy can take much longer than one month to be effective.d. The employees were not behind the change.97. A(n) ________ typically develops as an organization grows and is a principal source of inertia,especially in large organizations.a. matrix structureb. organic structurec. mechanistic structured. hyperbolic structure98. Organizational change is MOST LIKELY to be resisted ________.a. if it reinforces group normsb. by a highly cohesive groupc. if the organizational culture is weakd. by political coalitions who currently lack powerChallenge Examination 26 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior99. Individuals within an organization are LEAST LIKELY to resist change because of ________.a. uncertaintyb. force of habitc. selective perceptiond. profit motive100. A ________ is any activity that is vital to quickly delivering goods or services to customers orthat promotes high quality or low cost.a. functionb. business processc. production schemed. operational method

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